As far as specific actions go, it really depends on your personal practices. But the overall procedure has some common steps;
1) understand the magic. What is being done, and also why. Some workings are retaliations for wrongdoings, or intended as protective/ for your own good. Certain circumstance might call for some genuine apology if it turns out things started with you in the wrong, for example.
2) cleanse; Put together a method of spiritual cleansing for yourself and your personal space. The most common involves salt or smudge (or other incense) and a physical act of cleaning. The purpose is to clear away what is present and create an environment of positive energies.
3) banish; Actively reject the spell/magic, its effects, and send away any entities that may have been enlisted to enact or empower the offensive working.
4) protect; Now that things are kicked out, you want to lock the door behind them. Continue to build and maintain positive energies around yourself, and create barriers against unwanted influences. Salt, circles, crystals, and iron are all commonly used to block, push away, or ground out negativity.
5) Grow; Actively move yourself past the event. Use it as a learning experience to reveal where and how you might be living in a way that might be 'out of balance'. Take ownership of your actions and choices that contributed to the event and learn from them. By uplifting yourself you bring yourself outside of the reach of the problem.
Preety much everything Spirit76 said. Magics or any sort work on intent and a will supporting those intents. Aside from any 3rd parties assisting (some people's practices involve the aid of spirits), the fundamentals to breaking a spell put on you are the fundamentals used to perform spells.
There are tons of articles you could reference that are immediately accessible to you, or joining a group would give you access to some refined information. S76 covered most of what you need to know to get started.