Hello everyone , after some deliberation i've chosen to create some threads related to the Aztecs. In this thread i will be discussing the Tonalpohualli calendar.
I will be spreading it into four parts:
- What is the Tonalpohualli
- What is a Tercena
- Which are the days of the Tercena
- How to measure the current date (related to the time this post was made)
What is the Tonalpohualli
The tonalpohualli is the aztec calendar which is often used to represent a single year in their culture. The Calendar consists of 20 Tercena which are 13 Day peroids , which accumulate to a 260 day total. The Calendar also includes 29 peroids of 9 nights which are related to the Nine Aztec Lords of Night , which is important for performing the rites of these gods during the ninth night they govern. The Tonalpohualli culminates in each god ruling a Tercena and a Day in the Tercena , the Days are spread between the Lords of the Day. This calendar is also called the Sacred calendar due to its divinational and ritual significance.
What is a Tercena
A Tercena is a 13 day peroid which could be compared to some extent to the modern day use of the 7 day week. There's 20 tercena in total , and 20 day signs in total a tercena is defined by which daysign (day) they start with which rotates between the 20 daysigns from that one to the next which can create confusion (For example if the Tercena starts with Ollin as this current one does its tercena will have the next 13 day signs from Olin to Atl which is ninth in total but 13th at this Tercena's count.) Each Tercena is governed by a single god and consists of 13 days (daysigns).
The Tercena in order and the gods that govern them:
- 1 Cipactli GOD- Tonacatecuhtli
This tercena is the begining of the sacred calendar year. Its the time of chaotic energies and turmoil for all of creation. Characterized by a time when people shouldnt be lonely , but in company of dear friends and family.
- 2 Ocelotl GOD- Quetzalcoatl
This tercena represents the time of intellectual growth that follows catastrophes and issues. Its a good time to withdraw and think , evaluate the condition and prepare for the days ahead.
-3 Mazatl GOD- Tepeyollotl
This tercena is represents the concept of the hunt and assesment of situations. One should change their habits and try out new things during this time , its a bad time to keep to your old habits.
-4 Xochitl GOD- Huehuecoyotl
This tercena represents creative growth , its a good time to practice the arts , a bad time to fear what other people might think of your actions. One shouldnt inhibit their ambitions during this time.
-5 Acatl GOD- Chalchihuitlicue
This tercena is related to self growth and realization , its a bad time to shut away from the world and those who might help you , its a good time to visit new places and meet new people.
-6 Miquiztli GOD- Tonatiuh
This is the time of rememberence , a time when one shouldnt break their word , but fulfillt heir obligations and duties , this is the time when the ancestors are heard in everything we do , awake or asleep.
-7 Quiahuitl GOD- Tlaloc
This is the time of imbalance , when things shift between having too little or too much to handle , its a bad time to count on others , one should count only on themselves , for trust is hard to come by in this time.
-8 Malinalli GOD- Mayahuel
This is the time of emotional turmoil , when people cannot control the vigor in their heart , their desires and passions. Its a good time to be with a group of supporting friends , a bad time to stand alone.
-9 Coatl GOD- Xiuhtecuhtli
This is a time of discontent and scheming , deception is everywhere , one must be show their own strenght to gain respect , dont rely on others to defend your honor , only yourself.
-10 Tecpatl GOD- Mictlantecuhtli
This is a time of pain and turmoil (yeah i know alot of pain and turmoil in total) , when one must adapt to the new and let go of the past , or they can give up on who they are and what their significance is.
-11 Ozomahtli GOD- Patecatl
This a time of mending , both physically and emotionally , mend bonds between friends and lovers , rest your body for the trying times ahead. A time of healing and recupuration.
-12 Cuetzpalin GOD- Itzlacoliuhqui
This is a time of planning ambitious endeavours , but out of sight , its a bad time to get attention because its mostly negative , so keep out of sight and prepare to pounce on an oppourtunity.
-13 Ollin GOD - Tlazolteotl
This is a time when people are distrustful of others , secrets stolen from deep inside make wounds that fester for a long time , people need some time to think and feel remorse for their actions in the past , a bad time to fill out ones desires and passions.
-14 Itzcuintli GOD- Xipe Totec
This is a good time to to grow one self emotionally and spiritually , to spread your devotion to the dearly departed and the new people in your life , a time when one should be selfless.
-15 Calli GOD- Itzpapalotl
These are days to plan ahead , to see into what path you will be taking so that your future is most pleasing to you , dont spend your time locking yourself behind doors of doubt , just go through.
-16 Cozcacuauhtli GOD- Xolotl
This is a good time to drift away , devote some love to yourself , keep away from people whom try to ruin your mood , for this is the time to live with full longs for yourself.
-17 Atl GOD- Chalchihuihtotolin
This is an unpredictible time , when one should bet and gamble on things that seem like a long shot , one must be just as unpredictable as the time itself to profit from this time.
-18 Ehecatl GOD- Chantico
This is a time when order starts crumbling , when one should be wary of everything , always be two steps behind the person infront , so that you can react when something happens.
-19 Cuauhtli GOD- Xochiquetzal
This is a good time to make a risky decision , to gamble with your future , if you dont take risks you might not reap the rewards.
-20 Tochtli GOD- Xiuhtecuhtli
This is a the end of this cycle and the begining of the new , its when one should be generous and make sure that others can transition into the new cycle in a proper manner , so be generous and the generousity might be repayed to you in the future.
Which are the days of the Tercena
Although the Tercena consists of 13 days , there are 20 daysigns which rotate each daysign is significant , these daysigns rotate in a cyclical 20 , so depending on the tercena the next tercena will be made of different daysigns , For example the first Tercena - Cipactli will be made of the first 13 signs while the 2nd will be made from the last 7/20 and the first six.
The daysigns are the same as the tercena names , however the same gods dont rule over the same daysign as they do with the Tercena , and each daysign has its own characteristics.
1.Cipactli - Means Crocodile , is a good day for begining some sort of ambitious or big endeavour. - Lord of the day Tonacatecuhtli
2.Ehecatl - Means Wind , is a good day for changing habits and not interacting with big groups. - Lord of the day Quetzalcoatl
3.Calli - Means Home , is a good day to spend time with family rather than friends or strangers. - Lord of the day Tepeyollotl
4. Cuetzpalin - Means Lizard , is a day of rapid changes in luck. - Lord of the day Huehuecoyotl
5.Coatl - Means Snake , is a day for one to be generous and calm , rather than act on impulse or discuss onself. - Lord of the day Chalchihuitlicue
6.Miquiztli - Means Death , is a day good for reflecting on ones own course of life , rather than stick to minor , petty distractions and issues. - Lord of the day Tecciztecatl
7.Mazatl - Means Deer , is a day good for getting to know a person better , especially a potential love interest. - Lord of the day Tlaloc
8.Tochtli - Means Rabbit , is a day a good day to avoid conflict and focus on your emotional state and the state of your closest. - Lord of the day Mayahuel
9.Atl - Means Water , is a good day to stand up for ones opinions and beliefs and fight for what they think is right. - Lord of the day Xiuhtecuhtli
10.Itzcuintli - Means Dog , is a good day to offer help and comfort to those in need , a bad day to associate with a stranger. - Lord of the day Mictlantecuhtli
11.Ozomahtli - Means Monkey , is a good day to let go of ones serious side and just go crazy. - Lord of the day Xochipili
12.Malinalli - Means Grass , is a day of testiomony to life's indestructibility , its a good day to let go of ones fear and enjoy yourself especially those who were harrassed or stigmatized during their life. - Lord of the day Patecatl
13.Acatl - Means Reed , is a day one should seek justice for the wrongs they suffered. - Lord of the day Tezcatlipoca
14.Ocelotl - Means Jaguar , is a day of pride and joy , when those who faught hard in life should be praised for their accomplishments. - Lord of the day Tlazolteotl
15.Cuauhtli - Means Eagle , is a day to act on impulse and fight for your rights. - Lord of the day Xipe Totec
16.Cozcacuauhtli - Means Vulture , is a day to reflect on your actions and think of ways to better yourself. - Lord of the day Itzpapalotl
17.Ollin - Means Movement , Its a day when one can realize the path they walk on and forsee what waits for them during this time. - Lord of the day Xolotl
18.Tecpatl - Means Stone Knife , Its a day of hardship , when one should fight their hardest to survive what is thrown at them. - Lord of the day Chalchihuihtotolin
19.Quiahuitl - Means Rain , Its a day for seeing new sights and meeting new people , but its a horrible day for any sort of buisness endeavour or planning far ahead. - Lord of the day Tonatiuh
20.Xochitl - Means Flower , its a day for art and creativity , you should not suppress your ambitions or desires during this time , let them flower. - Lord of the day Xochiquetzal
How to measure the current date
Its quite simple really , Today is the 10th of september 2013 , that means its the 7th day of the 13th Tercena (Ollin) which means its the day 162 out of 260 days , Todays Sign is Calli the next sign is Cuetzpalin (which will be the 8th day of the 13th/20 tercena Ollin).
I hope you enjoy this thread , it took alot of time to write. Its a culmination of knowledge from various sites and texts such as Codex Borbonicus.