I recommend reading the basic for an understanding, but yes spells can work just as will without ingredients. It's all about intention and belief make sure to watch out for those fluff ones magic has it wonders, but going against the laws of nature will not work. Such as those fake ones with time travel and shape shift.
A good example of a spell without ingredients is prayer magic and meditation. That directly puts your intention into the universal energy, or literally talking to the divinity of your choice. Pagan Book of Prayer is a good book for looking more into Prayer Magic and is a great way to get involved in the Craft if you're just now coming out of Christianity.
Yes spells without ingredients can work just as well as spells without them, it all depends on the energy you put into them as someone previously stated. Usually, the ingredients are only used to put more energy into your spell but, there are other ways to do that. If you don't want to use ingredients try grounding and centering, meditating, etc. With a lot of pratice, you slowly won't need to ground or center anymore. I hope this helps!