Be careful in mixing culinary herbs with herbs you grow for magic. Some of the magical herbs are not safe to eat and keeping them in separate beds makes it easy to not make a mistake.
One herb that is very useful, which should grow in your area, and which is both culinary and of use in magic is Sage. The only exception is White Sage which is used to make smudging bundles but which is not good to eat.
Some other herbs that should do well for you and which serve both purposes are Basil and Thyme; perhabs even Lavender. Basil will not last through cold weather though, and it is unlikely that your Lavender will last either once the weather turns cold. The thyme may make it through the winter.
Mint is also a good choice and should do well and probably live through the winter. Keep mint in a pot or it will take over your garden.
As a fellow Missourian, I didn't start planting seeds until last week. But because of how late our last frost is, I started them in tiny pots.
Sage does wonderful in a regular pot, though it likes to be in full sun, as well as lavender, and morning glories. If you want to grow mint, keep an eye on it. Mint spreads like crazy and can overtake a lot space. Its best to plant it in its own section. Check an herbal almanac to see which veggies and herbs are companions, and which ones are not. Peppers should be planted in their own spot as well.(if not in their own pot!)
Do you find seeds or baby plants work better?
Last year I had all my herbs in pots and then the veggies were in a garden plot. We might expand the garden plot for more because last year it was pretty packed.
Right now I know I want tomatoes, beets, and peppers (chipotle? and bell) for veggies. For herbs, I was thinking rosemary, sage, thyme, basil, mint, cilantro and lavender. I have a flower bed to fill too but I'm going to consult a nursery about that.