This is a debatable topic by many.
Heaven And Hell: Christians believe that we go to Heaven or Hell when we die, depending on your life on Earth. Heaven is seen as a beautiful place and is supposedly an eternal place with God, where as Hell is seen as a eternal punishment for the wicked which is usually thought to be an eternal seperation with all that has to do with God.
Reincarnation: Reincarnation is the belief that we continue our spritual growth after death and therefore we get reincarnated into another being on Earth. Believing in this principle means you believe you have already had a past life (whatever that might have been). The person you are today could have been a result of Karma, which means whatever you have done in your past life affects you today in this current life.
Limbo: Limbo is a belief that people who have not been baptized but they are innocent (for example infants, people who lived before the birth of Christ, or those who die before recieving baptism) can exist neither in Heaven or Hell, therefore they are stuck in happiness until the end of time.
Purgatory: Purgatory is usually associated with the Catholic Church. All those who have died while with Gods friendship, but are still not purified, will be assured of their eternal residence. After death they will go through the purification process (purgatory) so they will be ready to be accepted into the Holy Kingdom.
The Summerland: The Summerland is the afterlife belief of many Wiccans. There the souls rest and heal from their previous life, reflecting and gathering their experiences, until after the period of rest. It is believed that the souls are then reincarnated and the memory of their previous life will be erased.
This is just a few of the widely held beliefs on the afterlife. If you have any questions fel free to mail me.