To start off, this is a brilliant post containing general info of basic concepts you will come across in your reading-
For spells, "Spells and How they work" by Janet and Stewart Farrar is a fine book.
For a more high magic approach, "Modern Magic" by Donald Michael Kraig is the best all round introduction to every sub topic, I would also recommend "The Essential Golden Dawn" by the Ciceros.
As for the history of magic there are many books out there which will cover that, in terms of modern magic as practiced widely by Wiccans, those who identify as witches etc. most of it has it's roots in Britain and a good book exploring these is "The book of English Magic" by Phillip Carr-Gromm.