Banishing spells and cleansing spells usually work immediately. Others can take a few days or a few weeks. All spells are different some take some time and others work pretty quickly. There really isn't a set time frame when it comes to most spells.
there's more to it than that of course, but that's basically it. say you want to write a luck spell, research what items have magical properties that work well with luck [green candles, aloe, basil, catnip, cinnamon, daisy, heather, amber, copper, so on] choose items that A. have lucky quartiles, and B. you work well with. for me, it's cinnamon, so all my spells i cast have cinnamon somewhere.
after choosing your ingredients, write a chant [if you want one] try to state what you wish to happen. it doesn't have to be long or rhyme, it could be just 'lord and lady bless me with luck'.
third you should try it out, figure out what you want to do, and cast the spell. it's through trial and error you'll figure out if the spell works. i'd work with lower forms of magic, things like luck, so if it backfires it's not as bad as a curse. once you've got it to work and you're happy, write it down.
I'd firstly check the sticky thread in other spells discussion, "Designing Rituals".
My tip is this. Take time to logically define your situation. Write this down on paper. Make an evening of it - this step is very mundane, i know, no witchy, incense smoke, magic secrets here, but leave it out at your own risk. You will use the answers to help solidify your magical intent. It's also helpful to research the magical correspondences specific to your unique situation. Fortunately the internet makes this easy. Google "magical correspondences" or something like "(money, success, protection,love, etc) spell correspondences." Alternatively, you may come across a spell kit you ressonate with. Researching correspondences is important because we are doing natural magic here, thus we need all the help from our magical world as we can get.
As for an additional information about the thread. Common correspondences include: Auspicious times (for our above situation of return of a lover: morning, Fridays, Venus, Taurus); Symbols (heart, initials, doves, flowers, peace signs); Colors (pink, light blue); Herbs and Natural Items (Balm of Gilead, Violet, Rose, Lodestones); God/desses, Saints, if you so choose (Aphrodite, Hera, The Magdeline, The Holy Family, etc.); Prayers, check out Beliefnet (Peace Prayer of Saint Francis, A Love Song, by Saint Teresa of Avila); Incense (Rose, Sandalwood).
Make a list. Find correspondences for: Timing of Spell, Astrological affinities, Symbols, Colors, Herbs/Plants/Roots/Flowers, Minerals, God/desses, Saints, Prayers/Chants/Scripture, Incense.
I say simply decide what you want to include and what not. It can be a simple energy directing as well. Think about how you wish to design it and eventually you'll get to it.