Something I shared in coven.
Firstly, what is philosophical realism?
Contemporary philosophical realism is the belief that in reality that is completely ontologically independent of our on conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. Realism may be spoken of with respect to other minds, the past, the future, universals, mathematical entities (such as natural numbers), moral categories, the material world, or even thought. Realism can also be promoted in an unqualified sense, in which case it asserts the mind-independent existence of a visible world, as opposed to idealism, skepticism and solipsism. Philosophers who profess realism state that truth consists in the mind's correspondence to reality.
From Dictionary references:
a) The doctrine that universals have a real objective existence.
b) The doctrine that objects of sense perception have a existence independent of the act of perception.
c) The scholastic doctrine, opposed to nominalism, that universals exist independently of their being thought.
d) The modern philosophical doctrine, opposed to idealism, that physical objects exist independently of their being perceived.
Realists hold that the essence of things is objectively given in nature, and that our classifications are not arbitrary. As such, realism is contrasted with nominalism, the theory that universals are merely names or general terms.
More generally, realism is any philosophical theory that emphasizes the existence of some kind of things or objects, in contrast to theories that dispense with the things in question in favour of words, ideas, or logical constructions. In particular, the term stands for the theory that there is a reality quite independent of the mind. In this sense, realism is opposed to idealism, the theory that only minds and their contents exist.
Aristotle + Plato Philosophy of Realism~
Although Aristotle was a student of Plato for about two decades, and was influenced by Plato hugely, in his philosophy there is a reaction to Plato's thinking.
Dealing with the universal
Absorb in ideas
Envisioned ideal ends
Recognized various sciences of his day as if they fitted into the total scheme of knowledge.
Interested in particulars
Fascinated by an individual thing
Kept his nose to the grindstone of present actualities
Ardently advanced the cause of science by spelling out the detail of a number of sciences with surprising fullness for his day.
Additional details of Aristotle's realism philosophy:
a) Accepting nature as a self-evidence reality. He attempted analytical descriptions of the natural order, and in so made valuable contributions to the development of sciences.
b) Attempting definition of the soul. He found it necessarily to consider
Plant life~ The lowest level at which is only found nutritive faculty, nourishment.
Animal life~ Has nutritive faculty and the faculty of perception, desiring faculty and power of locomotion.
Human life~ Possesses faculty of thinking, a thinking animal and true function is to live naturally.
c) Four causes in his physics. These explain how things come into existence and provide lines of investigation to be followed in the subject of a thing.
1. Material Cause- Describes the material out of which a thing is composed.
2. Formal Cause- Tells us what a thing is, that any thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype.
3. Efficient Cause- Is that from which the change or the ending of the change first starts. It identifies what makes of what is made, and what causes the change of what has been changed, and in so suggests all agents, living or non living, acting as the sources of change, movement, or rest.
4. Final Cause- The final cause is that of which the sake of a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions/activities.
2, 3 and 4 coincide in the concept of 'form.' Hence form is the propelling, organizing and final principle of becoming.
Four Philosophies and Their Practices in Education and Religion, 3rd Edition- Donald J. Butler.