If it wasnt for black holes we wouldnt have had the atomic ionization effect which helps create galaxies.
Like Lady Snow said a black hole is a Collapsed star, with the gravitational pull so powerful that light cant escape, With the atomic particles of light being Luminons, they are suppressed by the substance that we know as dark matter. This is as a black holes ''escape velocity'' is too large.
Escape Velocity is the velocity an object must attain to escape the gravitational field of a more massive body.
It is unsure of what is contained within a Black Hole as it emits no radiation, and we can only speculate about conditions inside, but it is said that black holes formed very early on in the Universe gave it the first light, by the matter contained in them heating up as it entered. this would have caused the widespread ionization.
A vortex in Astronomical terms are created by the fifth force. They lead us in to the realms of Vacuum forces and Virtual particles. Any vacuum is a boiling mass of virtual particles which always appear in pairs comprising of a particle and antiparticle. You will often find that what is described as a Vortex is a galaxy in its very early stages, with the gravitational force from the central star not that great as it has not yet reached G2 status, thus the swirling mass of gases are wide spread not yet being drawn in.
A void Cosmologically speaking is a break in the space continuum, In theory they work as worm holes upon entering creating gateways to different locations, with the dark matter all at the edge so it seems like nothingness. But the theory is that contained within is so much energy that you would travel at the speed of light once entered, you just have to locate the centre.
Astronomically speaking Voids are the spaces between galaxies sometimes containing no Stars, but there is nothing to say that one wont form within the void.
yes the Earth would be destroyed if there was a large enough black hole in our solar system, But that Wont happen until our sun goes supernova, and by that time it would have already expanded enough to engulf The first four planets, so earth would not exist. Then once it has settled back down it will eventually supernova.
May i suggest vortexagon that you try planetary magic. :)