There are multiple types of runes, traditionally we think of runes or rune stones from the Nordic cultures/ peoples. These runes are based on the early Germanic languages (pre- Latin alphabet ). The three best known rune sets are Elder Futhark , Anglo-Saxon Futhorc , and the Younger Futhark . Each similar adaptations of one another- however distinctive to the region they were practiced (throughout Scandinavia), letter/alphabet dichotomy, and time period.
Runes are used today and originally by Nordic/Germanic tribes for secular and religious reasons. As rune comes from "runa" meaning "secret" or "mystery". Due to their mystique- they are largely used for divination, protection, and even practical use when appropriated.
Runes are often used in: Northern Shamanism, Talismans, Galdr, Haervest, Stadhagaldr, and simple blessings, offerings, and invocations, etc.
Some reading if you are truly interested in taking up runes:
https://www.amazon.com/Practical-Guide-Runes-Divination-Llewellyns-ebook/dp/B002DGSNZI (really good book on simple Rune use and interpretation- there is a PDF available as well)