The Norse Futhark are runes that were originally created as a set of magick symbols. They can be traced historically to alphabets that were used before them, but what makes them unique is that they were used to create magic formulas to conjure the forces of nature, including those represented by certain teutonic dieites. Legend has it that when Odin, a war god that decided to walk the path of a shaman, hung upside down and wounded (by his own hand) for nine nights on the world tree, he discovered the mysteries (secrets) of existence within these symbols. He taught these mysteries to select people. These secrets or "runes" are known today, but little is truly known about them. People try to patch together the hints from a very small amount of texts and the mythology of the culture itself to unravel the mystery. Later on this sacred alphabet was made profane and spread as a usable alphabet for written word. This is when the younger futharks were born, as they were modified to adapt to other languages such as Swedish and Latin.
Modern occultists like to use them in divination.
Good sources on this form of magick include but is not limited to Steven Flowers/Edred Thorsson and Freyja Aswynn.