Herbs that improve the body's ability to adapt to stress of any sort, including infection, mental stress, or fatigue. Seem to change the threshold of resistance to damage by supporting the adrenal glands and possibly the pituitary glands.
Herbs that restore the proper function of the body, usually through altering metabolism by improving the tissues' ability to metabolise nutrients and eliminate wastes. Many of these herbs act through the kidneys, liver, lungs, bowels, or skin to eliminate wastes. Some stimulate digestion, some are antimicrobial, and some work through actions not as yet understood.
Generally used as first line medicines in conditions of chronic inflammation or degeneration, for example, any sort of chronic skin condition, many types of arthritis, and auto-immune illnesses.
Most herbs that have a primary action on the liver or kidneys can be considered alterative.
Examples: Burdock, Cleavers, Nettles
Herbs that decrease sweating.
Herbs that reduce pain by reducing the sensitivity of the nerves. Synonymous with ANALGESICS.
Examples: Lady's Slipper, Opium
Destroy or expel worms from the digestive system.
Examples: Garlic, Tansy, Wormwood
Relieve gout or other arthritic conditions. Generally, ALTERATIVES
Help remove excessive mucus, generally from the upper respiratory tract. Mucus is generally produced in the body's effort to remove infective organisms or to remove excessive carbohydrates. Some of these herbs make the mucus more watery so it is easier to expel, others decrease production.
Examples:Goldenseal, Elder, Peppermint
Herbs that help reduce or prevent seizures. Also called ANTI-EPILEPTICS.
Examples: Valerian, Black Cohosh
Herbs that help regulate and reduce blood sugar. Also called HYPOGLYCEMICS.
Herbs that reduce nausea and vomiting.
Examples: Black Horehound, Lemonbalm
Herbs that act against fungal infection. See ANTI-MICROBIALS.
Relieves "dropsy" or fluid retention. see DIURETICS and CARDIAC TONICS
Herbs that reduce blood pressure.
Examples: Garlic, Barberry
Helps the body combat inflammation. Herbs classed as emollients, demulcents, and vulneraries often do this. Some anti-inflammatory herbs contain salicylates, the chemicals on which aspirin is based; examples include Willow Bark, Wintergreen, Birch, and Black Haw. Some herbs contain precursors of steroidal compounds, and can balance the levels of steroids in the body; these include Liquorice, Wild Yam, and Ginseng. Others have a useful anti-inflammatory effect without a mechanism of action yet identified; these include Bogbean, Devil's Claw, Marigold flowers, and Black Cohosh.
Helps prevent the formation of stones or gravel in the urine, and can help the removal of those already formed. May work by a combination of dissolving stones, washing out the components that could form them, or increasing urine flow so as to flush out the system.
Help the body destroy or resist pathogenic organisms. Some of these are actually antiseptic, killing the organisms (generally, "cidal" means organisms are killed, "static" means replication of organisms are stopped, and "fuge" means organisms, as in intestinal worms, are expelled.) Others support the function of the immune system to neutralise many pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and paracytes. These herbs can support the body in fighting off many infections, but there are certainly times when anti-biotics can be life-saving.
Examples: Echinacea, Myrrh, Garlic, Thyme, Eucalyptus, Wild Indigo, Sage
Herbs that reduce spontaneous mutations within cells. This may help reduce incidence of cancer.
Herbs rich in Vitamin C which prevent or cure scurvy, a disease caused by deficiency of this vitamin. Generally classed as ALTERATIVES.
Examples: Rose hips
Inhibit growth of bacteria, and prevent infection, putrefaction, cell decay, and pus formation. See ANTI-MICROBIALS.
Helps prevent or ease muscle spasms in both skeletal muscles (the muscles that move bones) and smooth muscles (the muscles related to many of the body's involuntary functions, such as digestion). Many sedative, nervine, or hypnotic herbs also have anti-spasmodic effects. Those anti-spasmodic herbs with an affinity for the respiratory system are useful for asthma.
Examples: Cramp Bark, Black Haw
Herbs that prevent formation of blood clots.
Herbs that act against the effects of specific toxins.
Examples: Black Cohosh, Angelica
Herbs that reduce or prevent cough.
Examples: Wild Cherry
Herbs that kill viruses or render them unable to replicate. See ANTI-MICROBIALS.
A mild and gentle laxative. Promote only the natural bowel movement and function. Bulk forming herbs soak up water in the gut, creating a larger volume of softer stool; examples are Psyllium, Flax seed, and guar gum. Other herbs stimulate normal muscle movements in the bowels, such as Rhubarb root, and Yellow Dock.
Herbs that increase sexual potency or excitement.
These herbs are characterised by a strong, usually pleasant odour that stimulates the digestive system. Often used in cooking to add flavour, they also aid digestion.
Examples: Caraway, Cardamon, Dill, Peppermint, Ginger
Have a binding action on skin or mucous membranes that helps dry up mucous discharge, tone local blood vessels and varicosities, and stop bleeding. Most of these herbs are rich in tannins, compounds used to "tan" leather, which precipitate protein molecules; they produce a leathery, smooth coat over the tissue in question, thus reduce irritation on the surface by a mild numbing, reduce local inflammation by toning the vessels supplying the area, and create a barrier to infection in wounds and burns. Depending on the tissue they act upon, they are used to treat diarrhea, bleeding, mucous discharges, and the discomfort of varicosities and haemorrhoids.
Examples: Agrimony, Eyebright, Oak bark, Cranesbill, Raspberry leaves, Witch Hazel, Yarrow
Herbs that kill bacteria. See ANTI-MICROBIALS.
The bitter taste of these herbs seems to stimulate the release of digestive hormones in the gut. This stimulates appetite, and is of value in convalescence. It helps normalise the secretory functions of pancreas, duodenum, and liver. It increases the secretion of bile, and aids the liver in detoxification. There is also evidence that these herbs help the gut wall repair local damage. Note that these herbs should not generally be used in pregnancy (anything that increases gut contractions can also increase uterine contractility) Also called BITTER TONICS.
Examples: Wormwood, Rue, Gentian
CARDIACS AND CARDIAC TONICS
This term is used for most herbs that have an effect on the heart. In general the treatment of heart problems should be supervised by qualified professionals. Many of these herbs are extremely beneficial in the correct dosage, but some can be fatal if this fine line is crossed.
Examples: Lily of the Valley, Foxglove, and Broom should be used only under qualified supervision; Motherwort, Hawthorne, and Lime blossom are milder.
These herbs are generally rich in aromatic oils. Their main action is to soothe and settle the gut wall, easing gripping and allowing the removal of gas. Many of the aromatic herbs have a carminative effect.
Examples: Fennel, Ginger, Caraway
Herbs that clean waste material from the whole digestive system, including bowels, liver, and gall bladder. Can have a very strong effect. Due to the considerable griping they produce, are often used with ginger. Strong cathartics are often listed as poisonous, and should be used with caution. Contrast with APERIENTS and LAXATIVES.
These herbs stimulate the flow of bile from the liver. Most of the remedies classified as BITTERS or HEPATICS also have cholagogue function. Bile aids in the digestion and assimilation of fats and fat-soluble nutrients. It also acts as a mild laxative to keep the bowels moving smoothly and prevent accumulation of material that could become toxic.
Examples: Balmony, Fringetree, Barberry, Goldenseal
Herbs that aid wound healing. See VULNERARIES.
Herbs that render strong remedies more pleasant. Particularly herbs that lessen the griping common with purgatives and cathartics.
Examples: Ginger, Fennel
Herbs rich in mucilage which soothe and protect inflamed or irritated tissue. When they are used on the skin, demulcent herbs are called EMOLLIENTS. Depending on where they work, they can reduce irritation in the bowel and help heal ulcers, ease cough, or relax painful spasm in the bladder, ureters, and sometimes even the uterus.
Examples: Marshmallow, Slippery Elm
Herbs that support the liver in removing toxic substances from the body. See HEPATICS. Contrast with ANTI-TOXINS, which work against specific toxins.
A term synonymous with ALTERATIVES.
Herbs that promote sweating. This can help the vital function of removing waste products through the skin. Or it can help cool the body during a fever. They are thought to work by dilating the capillaries in the skin, which stimulates the sweat glands. Many of these herbs work as diaphoretics if taken hot, but as DIURETICS if taken cold.
Examples: Yarrow, Cayenne, Boneset
Strictly speaking, herbs that increase the formation and elimination of urine, but commonly used to refer to all herbs that have a beneficial effect on the urinary tract, so includes urinary demulcents, etc. The true diuretics can work by increasing blood flow to the kidneys, others actually effect the water reabsorption in the tubules of the kidneys. Contribute to overall health by helping the kidneys clear toxins from the system.
Examples: Bearberry, Couch Grass, Buchu, Corn Silk, Dandelion