Now lets start with the facts and fiction part of this little thing:
a) Fiction(these should be logical to anyone with half a brain cell):
Fiction 1) Energy can be gathered and used as a missile or as a material to craft weapons that can affect mater and/or living beings.
Fiction 2) Its possible to absorb/steal energy from another person fast enough to disable him.
Fiction 3) One can use magic to control elements and/or natural phenomenons.
Fiction 4) Curses can be used by anyone and get fast and "safe" results.
Fiction 5) Magic can be used to boost ones physical abilities beyond those of ordinary humans.
Now this last one is a bit of the odd ball cause "magic" can be used to augment ones perception and to an extent physical abilities but said boost is by no means at super-human level as portrayed in so many spells on the subject.
Sorry I must apologize cause I went a bit ahead myself.
b) Either way a list of few facts I`m aware:
Fact 1) Curses may be more efficient and realistic than simple energy manipulation and definitely more realistic then manipulating elements but it does come with its own list of risks(if subjects passive energy is stronger than the active energy in curse it will simply bounce back at ya and even if it works backlash is still a very possible, to name the few).
Fact 2) Now as previously mentioned it is possible to augment ones perception/physical abilities with use of energy/"magic" but by a very small margin and usually at cost of other senses or some aspect of ones physical ability.
Fact 3) Most of things that can be considered "real" combat magic is trained and practiced by martial artists around the world to a lesser or higher extent.
Now as stated at the beginning of the article I will list a couple of "spells"/tricks that can be considered "combat magic":
- Enhanced Senses: pretty basic little trick usable both in and outside of combat, in combat can be used to enhance ones vision at cost of other senses to allow better perception of the opponents movement(simply concentrate on vision, after few seconds one should notice that his vision is getting better while his other senses are becoming dull, requires a lot of practice to be usable, not really a magic but it was classified as such in China, Japan and Korea).
- Enhanced Body: cute but mostly useless little trick that allow it`s user to enhance strength or speed of ones body or body part(arm, leg, etc), simple but as previously mentioned useless cause increase in speed/strength is small while loss of strength/speed is relatively large(to use it one should flood its limb with energy while having clear intention whether he wants to increase his speed or strength, now users of this little trick will notice that in case of increasing of strength he is losing speed and that opposite is also true) similarly one can also increase durability of his body but at cost of both strength and speed.
- Piercing Blow: also pretty common little thing that consists of actually subconsciously channeling ones energy in usually straight punch or a open palm trust with intention of striking not your enemy but some distant target behind him while he is simply in the way(again by today`s/western standards not actually magic but in the lands of its origin, China, Japan, Korea it was considered a form of it, either way it was trained by repeatedly striking a target of some sorts while actually aiming at the target behind it while gradually increasing the distance of the second target, the effect was a blow that could cause massive amounts of internal damage with fairly small amount of external one if mastered, or that could be used to cause damage to a target behind the one you are actually hitting as long as they are in contact over large enough surface).
- Kiai Shout: is hybrid of combat/sound magic that consists of focusing ones energy through stomach, diaphragm, lungs, heart and throat(to amplify sound and force of released sound) then explosively releasing it in a single shout. It`s generally used as means of intimidation and distraction just a split second before striking, but in right conditions it can also be used to disorient opponent(usually trained by shouting as loud and as fast as one can while jumping, without damaging ones throat in the process, with goal of releasing one extremely powerful shout in combat situation. Masters of this art can also give extremely sharp but subtle commanding note to there speaking voice or even in the way they breathing and use it to increase there chances of people that were other ways reluctant to obey them or make people feel anxious or even afraid around them for no apparent reason). Generally acknowledged as a form of magic in the east(China, Japan and Korea).
- Berserk Rage: form of magic used all over the world with one simple purpose, using rage to grant it`s users inability to feel pain and complete loss of both there physical and psychological inhibitions during combat situations. Most well known user of this ability were Viking warrior priest of Odin also known as Berserk`s and by them is this little spell/ritual/trick/ability named. Now there were others around the globe that used this, for example shamans from Northern most region of Korea used it in combat.
Either way methods of learning/training wary depending of part of the world and culture, but there are two main ones:
1) Used by Vikings consisted out of taking alcoholic tonic containing special type of mushroom, semi regular beatings and exposure to harsh weather and elements topped of with large amounts of meditation(no details for obvious reasons).
2) Used in both Korea and Japan consisted out of opening of so called Kai Ryu Gan which can be described as a gate of the cage that houses a Spirit Beast that every person has and learning how to control opening and closing of it as well as controlling the beast inside(again I will give no details as consequences can rather bad if one is not ready or in presence of someone who has already mastered it).
Oops nearly forgot infamous Spirit/Astral Fighting a cute little subdivision of Combat Magic that focuses on fighting spiritual beings, it seams that those that like Combat Magic also like this thing as well and are often describing it as some epic battle while it`s, so I`ll break it down for those interested in one move in 3 simple steps:
Step 1) Pushing: focus your energy at one point then expand it violently in a form of a bubble it should push them away and they will leave you alone.
Step 2) Territory: if they are persisting expand your energy in a bubble that will determine your territory for them to evade.
Step 3) Blender: if they are still coming at you in hostile manner star spinning your bubble as fast as you can while focusing on energy in your bubble being sharp.
Now to summarize it Combat Magic as most portray it is one hell of a fluff with no real base in common sense, and even in what most would call Spirit Combat(fighting of spiritual entities or on astral plane) its more or less just one fluff after the other. What little there is out there that can be accepted as Combat Magic is usually either near useless or requires such large amounts of training in martial arts that by the time it`s mastered it turns useless or has a such price to pay it`s just not worth it.
Thank you for reading and I hope it shed some light on the subject for those that are interested in this branch of magic.